Simao,F.; Strobl,C.; Vullo,C.; Catelli,L.; Machado,P.; Huber,N.; Schnaller,L.; Huber,G.; Xavier,C.; Carvalho,E.F.; Gusmao,L.; Parson,W.;
Most studies on maternal lineages of South America populations are restricted to control region (CR) markers and, for some geographical regions, the number of studied samples does not adequately represent the existing diversity. This is the case of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies on Paraguay that are limited to two Native ethnic groups. To overcome this deficiency, we analysed the mitogenomes from 105 individuals living in Alto Parana, the second most populated department of the country. Using the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel, the molecule was sequenced on Ion S5. The majority of the haplotypes belong to the Native American lineages A, B, C and D. Analyses of maximum parsimony using mitogenome data retrieved from publications and in The 1000 Genomes Project showed a high number of new native American subclades in Paraguay. Also, none of the haplotypes found in Alto Parana match the remaining South American samples, which include admixed populations from Colombia, Peru and Ecuador, and natives from Colombia and Ecuador. FST genetic distance analysis showed that the native genetic background of Alto Parana has an intermediate position between the Amazonian groups and the admixed populations from Peru and Ecuador, supporting the theory about the Amazonian origin of the Tupi-Guarani and, at the same time, showing the influence of other linguistic groups.
Forensic Sci Int Genet 2019 39:66-72