[Genetics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)]

Weiss,E.M.; Parson,W.; Niederstatter,H.; Marksteiner,J.; Lampe,A.; Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. [Read More]

A Novel Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine and Their Glucuronides in Urine

Schubert,B.; Pitterl,F.; Saxl,B.; Pavlic,M.; Buprenorphine is a commonly used opioid in pain therapy as well as in opiate maintenance therapy. Immunoassays are quick and cost-effective methods for the necessary toxicological urine analysis of maintenance therapy patients. In this study a novel enzymatic immunoassay, the Thermo Fisher Scientific CEDIA Buprenorphine II assay (Bup2) was evaluated for the detection of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and their conjugated metabolites in human urine samples. The Bup2 assay has a cut-off of 10 ng/mL with +/-25% controls, whereas the existing CEDIA Buprenorphine assay (Bup1) has a cut-off of 5 ng/mL and +/-40% controls. [Read More]

A validated workflow for drug detection in oral fluid by non-targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Reinstadler,V.; Lierheimer,S.; Boettcher,M.; Oberacher,H.; Oral fluid is recognized as an important specimen for drug testing. Common applications are monitoring in substance abuse treatment programs, therapeutic drug monitoring, pain management, workplace drug testing, clinical toxicology, and driving under the influence of drugs (DRUID). In this study, we demonstrate that non-targeted LC-MS/MS with subsequent compound identification by tandem mass spectral library search is a valuable tool for comprehensive detection and confirmation of drugs in oral fluid samples. [Read More]

Acyl-Alkyl-Phosphatidlycholines are Decreased in Saliva of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease as Identified by Targeted Metabolomics

Marksteiner,J.; Oberacher,H.; Humpel,C.; Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still a challenge. Salivary analysis could produce an easily accessible and inexpensive possibility to study metabolic changes in AD. In the present pilot study, we show for the first time using targeted metabolomics that acyl-alkyl phosphatidylcholines (PCae C34:1-2; PCae C36:1-2-3; PCaeC38:1c3; PCae C40:2-3) are significantly reduced in saliva of AD patients (n = 25) compared to healthy controls (n = 25). Saliva levels of PCae C36Lambda1-2-3) were also decreased in patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 25). [Read More]

Cerebrospinal Fluid Drug Concentrations and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Neoplastic Meningitis Treated with Liposomal Cytarabine

Bohn,J.P.; Reinstadler,V.; Pall,G.; Stockhammer,G.; Steurer,M.; Oberacher,H.; Wolf,D.; BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liposomal cytarabine is a slow-release formulation for intrathecal application in patients with neoplastic meningitis. Although standard dosing intervals range from 2 to 4 weeks, it is unclear whether sustained cytotoxic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations can be achieved beyond 14 days from drug injection. The objective of this study was to assess CSF and plasma concentrations of liposomal cytarabine more than 2 weeks after lumbar drug administration and to correlate those findings with clinical outcome. [Read More]