Bohn,J.P.; Reinstadler,V.; Pall,G.; Stockhammer,G.; Steurer,M.; Oberacher,H.; Wolf,D.;
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liposomal cytarabine is a slow-release formulation for intrathecal application in patients with neoplastic meningitis. Although standard dosing intervals range from 2 to 4 weeks, it is unclear whether sustained cytotoxic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations can be achieved beyond 14 days from drug injection. The objective of this study was to assess CSF and plasma concentrations of liposomal cytarabine more than 2 weeks after lumbar drug administration and to correlate those findings with clinical outcome. METHODS: 66 matched CSF and plasma drug concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method starting at day 13 from lumbar drug injection in 19 patients with neoplastic meningitis treated with liposomal cytarabine. CSF drug concentrations were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 63.2% (12⁄19). 100% (9⁄9) of patients with positive CSF cytology at diagnosis achieved cytological complete remission, and none of the patients (0/19) experienced on-drug disease progression. In responding patients with controlled systemic disease, CNS-specific progression-free survival was 14 months (n = 4; range 5-25 months). The median CSF concentration of free cytarabine was 156 ng/ml (range 5-4581 ng/ml) and 146 ng/ml (range 5-353 ng/ml) in samples withdrawn at days 13-16 and at days 25-29 after intrathecal drug injection, respectively. Free cytarabine concentrations > 100 ng/ml were detected in 58.8% (20⁄34) and 53.3% (7⁄13) of the CSF samples obtained at days 13-16 and days 25-29, respectively. CSF drug concentrations did not differ significantly between responding and nonresponding patients. CONCLUSION: Liposomal cytarabine permits prolonged CSF drug exposure, with cytotoxic cytarabine concentrations that are detectable for 4 weeks in the majority of patients. The preserved clinical activity seen in patients with inferior CSF drug concentrations (< 100 ng/ml) suggests that maintaining lower cytarabine concentrations for a longer period of time may be similarly effective as using short peak concentrations.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 :