Building a custom large-scale panel of novel microhaplotypes for forensic identification using MiSeq and Ion S5 massively parallel sequencing systems

delaPuente,M.; Phillips,C.; Xavier,C.; Amigo,J.; Carracedo,A.; Parson,W.; Lareu,M.V.; A large number of new microhaplotype loci were identified in the human genome by applying a directed search with selection criteria emphasizing short haplotype length (<120 nucleotides) and maximum levels of polymorphism in the composite SNPs. From these searches, 107 autosomal microhaplotypes and 11 X chromosome microhaplotypes were selected, with well-spaced autosomal positions to ensure their independence in relationship tests. The 118 microhaplotypes were assembled into a single multiplex assay for the analysis of forensic DNA with massively parallel sequencing (MPS). [Read More]

Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote prostate tumor growth and progression through upregulation of cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis

Neuwirt,H.; Bouchal,J.; Kharaishvili,G.; Ploner,C.; Johrer,K.; Pitterl,F.; Weber,A.; Klocker,H.; Eder,I.E.; BACKGROUND: Androgen receptor targeted therapies have emerged as an effective tool to manage advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, frequent occurrence of therapy resistance represents a major challenge in the clinical management of patients, also because the molecular mechanisms behind therapy resistance are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we therefore aimed to identify novel targets to intervene with therapy resistance using gene expression analysis of PCa co-culture spheroids where PCa cells are grown in the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and which have been previously shown to be a reliable model for antiandrogen resistance. [Read More]

Comparison of structure and composition of a fossil Champsosaurus vertebra with modern Crocodylidae vertebrae: A multi-instrumental approach

Wöss,C.; Unterberger,S.H.; Degenhart,G.; Akolkar,A.; Traxl,R.; Kuhn,V.; Schirmer,M.; Pallua,A.K.; Tappert,R.; Pallua,J.D.; Information on the adaptation of bone structures during evolution is rare since histological data are limited. Micro- and nano-computed tomography of a fossilized vertebra from Champsosaurus sp., which has an estimated age of 70-73 million years, revealed lower porosity and higher bone density compared to modern Crocodylidae vertebrae. Mid-infrared reflectance and energy dispersive X-ray mapping excluded a petrification process, and demonstrated a typical carbonate apatite distribution, confirming histology in light- and electron microscopy of the preserved vertebra. [Read More]

Consumption Of The Sugar Substitute Stevia Leads To Cross-Reactivity Of CEDIA(R) Buprenorphine II Immunoassay

Plattner,S.; Pavlic,M.; Pitterl,F.; Schubert,B.; Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid which is often used in opiate maintenance therapy. For this purpose, regular toxicological analyses of urine samples are mandatory. For fast analytical results, analyses are commonly performed by immunoassay, e.g. Thermo Scientific CEDIA® Buprenorphine or Buprenorphine II assay. One drawback of immunoassay-based methods are possible cross-reactions with other substances. Several structural related and unrelated drugs have already been checked for cross-reactivity to CEDIA® Buprenorphine II immunoassay. [Read More]

Development and optimization of the VISAGE basic prototype tool for forensic age estimation

Heidegger,A.; Xavier,C.; Niederstätter,H.; delaPuente,M.; Pospiech,E.; Pisarek,A.; Kayser,M.; Branicki,W.; Parson,W.; VISAGEConsortium; The VISAGE (VISible Attributes through GEnomics) consortium aims to develop, optimize and validate prototype tools to broaden the use of DNA intelligence methods in forensic routine laboratories. This includes age estimation based on the quantification of DNA methylation at specific CpG sites. Here, we present the VISAGE basic prototype tool for age estimation targeting 32 CpGs from five genes ELOVL2, MIR29B2CHG (herein, MIR29B2C), FHL2, TRIM59 and KLF14. [Read More]